## Remember to reference R

When people are new to using R and, perhaps, to referencing and report writing in general, they often don’t know they should cite and reference R and its packages. We do this for the same reasons we reference any thing else in any academic work.

- We need to support our arguments with evidence and give readers the opportunity to evaluate the validity of that evidence. Citing R and its packages allows people to evaluate the reproducilibity of your analysis and results.
- We need to recognise and give credit for the work of others. R is a collaborative open source project with many contributors and citing R and its packages supports the development of such fantastic and free tools.

R makes it easy to do this!

### The `citation()`

function

This function outputs the reference for R

```
citation()
```

## ## To cite R in publications use: ## ## R Core Team (2017). R: A language and environment for ## statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ## Vienna, Austria. URL https://www.R-project.org/. ## ## A BibTeX entry for LaTeX users is ## ## @Manual{, ## title = {R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing}, ## author = {{R Core Team}}, ## organization = {R Foundation for Statistical Computing}, ## address = {Vienna, Austria}, ## year = {2017}, ## url = {https://www.R-project.org/}, ## } ## ## We have invested a lot of time and effort in creating R, please ## cite it when using it for data analysis. See also ## 'citation("pkgname")' for citing R packages.

BibTeX is just a format used by some reference managers.

You can get the citation information for R packages like this:

```
citation("ggplot2")
```

## ## To cite ggplot2 in publications, please use: ## ## H. Wickham. ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis. ## Springer-Verlag New York, 2009. ## ## A BibTeX entry for LaTeX users is ## ## @Book{, ## author = {Hadley Wickham}, ## title = {ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis}, ## publisher = {Springer-Verlag New York}, ## year = {2009}, ## isbn = {978-0-387-98140-6}, ## url = {http://ggplot2.org}, ## }

In your Methods section you might say something like:

Analysis was conducted in R (R Core Team, 2014) and figures were produced using the package ggplot2 (Wickham, 2009).

Usually, it will have more detail about the analysis itself. Here is an example:

We used R (R Core Team, 2017) with lme4 (Bates *et al*., 2015) to perform linear mixed (LME) analysis of cell function……….

Then in your reference list:

Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B. and Walker, S. (2015). Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4.

*Journal of Statistical Software*, 67(1), 1-48. doi:10.18637/jss.v067.i01.

R Core Team (2014). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical

Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL http://www.R-project.org/

Wickham, H. (2009) *ggplot2: elegant graphics for data analysis*. Springer New York.

P.S. You do get this message every time you start R up!

R version 3.4.2 (2017-09-28) -- "Short Summer" Copyright (C) 2017 The R Foundation for Statistical Computing Platform: x86_64-w64-mingw32/x64 (64-bit) R is free software and comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. You are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions. Type 'license()' or 'licence()' for distribution details. R is a collaborative project with many contributors. Type 'contributors()' for more information and 'citation()' on how to cite R or R packages in publications. Type 'demo()' for some demos, 'help()' for on-line help, or 'help.start()' for an HTML browser interface to help. Type 'q()' to quit R.